Author Archives: sallyarj

Dusk Maiden Of Amnesia (Tasogare Otome × Amunejia) – What A Maiden!

The Haphazard

Dusk Maiden of Amnesia - Screen Cap #5

For those of you following me on twitter, well you’d know nothing, considering I didn’t tweet about this particular anime. Dusk Maiden Of Amnesia (Tasogare Otome × Amunejia) was a better anime than I expected. It was filled with a lot of heartbreak, weird angles, and most importantly, tons of horrifying moments, despite the anime being mostly funny and romantic. Indeed what a maiden was this anime.

The anime is about a high school student, Teiichi Niiya, who while exploring, discovers a girl by the name Yuuko Kanoe who reveals herself to be a ghost. The entire anime (twelve episodes) revolves around Teiichi attempting to find out more about Yuuko’s past and why she remains on earth, oh and Yuuko has Amnesia and forgets a lot of stuff all the time.

The anime itself, is quite well done, the original manga was published by Square Enix and serialized by Monthly Gangan Joker

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MY FINAL GOODBYE

So this is my last post and I added my video I did

I hope you enjoy the video now it’s time for a reflection into the past few most from the beginning of the semester.

Honestly when I heard that I had to do biochemistry I thought of dropping my major in biology since I really could not deal with the stress I know biochem can bring having done it at CAPE or A level. I will be honest no matter how bad it makes me look I got a grade 3 in the biochem part of my exam, I really could not understand it and it has always made me feel less about myself and my love for science since I just did not get it no matter how hard I tried then.

In secondary school it was the most stressful and demoralizing ordeal especially since my class just had to have the “brightest” student who never fail at making me feel like utter crap about the subject that I loved. Then at university at the first day of class they told us that the failure rate of the course was 50% right there and then I told myself “well summer school for it,” because I knew I was going to fail.

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It really bothered me that I had to do this course even though my lecturer said don’t worry since his methods ensured a pass if I stuck to it “sure…” I though, then it was time for the first tutorial and nothing has ever made me feel worse than that day since I was not prepared at all and my lectured did the tutorials in the form of a quiz/ gameshow thingy where he would separate the class into 2 sides and ask questions but I didn’t do any work and the topic and so our side of the class ended up getting really low.

Next tutorial was on carbohydrates and I studied and attended and I ended up saving my side. Imagine that me saving my side I felt so much confidence build in me I was so happy that day I couldn’t stop talking about going up on the board and figuring out how many chiral carbons a sugar had and how many isomers can be formed and I still know it its 2n with n being the number of chiral centres.

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Anyways I also saved my group for the proteins tutorial and I was so happy and I started to take this blog thing seriously and amazingly I started to understand my work a lot better and I actually enjoyed doing the assignments and lab since I got to find out soo much.

Then it was time to the topic I faired the most cellular reparation but surprisingly I understood and learnt a lot and even helped my friends it was amazing to see myself transform from a person that hated and feared biochemistry to someone who understood and loved it.

Even with doing this blog which by the way is and assignment for the biochem course I learnt to use wodle and I even learnt how to make you tube videos and use windows movie maker yeahh … and even how to use gifs and even html. What made me even prouder of myself is the amount of people viewing my blog over 400 people from all around the world literally countries i dream of going the coolest has to be Brunei, Latvia, Yemen and Bosnia i was also surprised to see soo much views from Germany, US and UK thanks you guys, thanks alot it helped me alot  to even think that my work is being shared and viewed all over the world 🙂 .

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It was some such fun especially since I had to share this journey with my 2 best friends who helped my soo much and I know I helped them too … learning and even making mistakes but it was all funny.

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I really enjoyed this experience and I would love to continue a blog maybe not now but later on in life. Also I really hope I do well in this course and again I’m going to be honest I am lost in all my other courses but I am defiantly sure I’m passing this one I just hope it’s with an A especially for my parent since I put them through a lot … today making my last video I spilled drain cleaner on the floor and it destroyed their hard wood floors sigh*…. But that’s all in it and I got to play scientist adding baking soda to neutralise the acid in the drain cleaner and then adding ajax with sodium bicarbonate to further neutralise the acid…. Even though I got in trouble and my dad went on bankai/kyuubi it was fun ….

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And lastly i would like to thank my lecturer self proclaimed hokage i swear sir your methods are the best if it wasn’t for that then i would have been at square one lost and depressed thinking i can’t do this course thank you very much i swear you are indeed the best hokage better than tsunade, tobirama, sarutobi  even better than harashima  but not better than minato lolz just kidding … your teaching methods and videos were really great thank you soo much 🙂

Well that’s it for me you read my story, seen my post and how much I learnt, I hope you all learnt something too. Remember you just have to make up your mind to do your work and put your best foot forward, be confident have faith in God and everything will be fine, don’ t hate biochem and treat it like an obstacle have fun with it and sit down and try to understand it and trust me you will so byebye for now 🙂


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Quiz time

Since we really close to the end i wanna give you a quiz based on all that we learnt so far …

1) What part of the cell is responsible for breaking down and digesting foreign material?

A) lysosomes

B) endoplasmic reticulum

C) ribosome

D) cytosol

2) The jellylike solution of the cell is called the:

A)  cytoplasm

B)   Nucleus

C)   Endoplasmic reticulum

D)  Cytosol

3) How many chiral carbons does glucose have?

A)8

B)2

C)4

D)1

4) Epimers are carbohydrates that differ in configuration around how many carbons?

A)1

B)2

C)3

D)4

5)Mannose and ………………. are epimers.

A) maltose

B) lactose

C) galactose

D) Fructose

6) Lactose contains which of the following bonds:

A)α1→4 glycosidic bond

B)β1→4 glycosidic bond

C)α1→2 glycosidic bond

D)β1→2glycosidic bond

 

7) Polysaccharides are mainly used for:

A)Storage

B)Tansport

C)Energy

D)Heat

 

Answer the following using the key given below:

A)1,2,3

B)1,3,4

C)1,2,4

D)2,3,4

 

 

8)Amino acid with an aromatic R group:

Tyrosine

Phenlamine

Proline

Tryptophan

 

9)An essential amino acid is:

Lysine

Valine

Serine

Histidine

 

10)Enzymes consist of:

Proteins

Rna molecules

Antibodies

Fatty acids

 

11)Which of the following are enzymes associated with glycolysis :

Aldolase

PhosphoglycerIsomerase

Phosphofructokines2

Phoshoglycerate mutase

A)1,2,3

B)1,4 only

C)1,2 only

D)2,3,only

 

i hope you did well ….. feel free to post your scores

 

lipids

Lipids

These are naturally occurring organic compounds that are insoluble in water.

Lipids functions as:

  • Energy Storage
  • Making Biological Membranes
  • Insulation eg. Animal fat (blubber)
  • Protection – e.g. protecting plant leaves from drying up
  • Acting as hormones

They are made from two molecules: Glycerol and Fatty Acids. They may be saturated or unsaturated.

A fatty acid is saturated if every possible bond is made with a Hydrogen atom, such that there exist no C=C bonds. Saturated fatty acids on the other hand do contain C=C bonds.

If fatty acids are unsaturated, it does contain C=C bonds  and so because of this their shape is altered from a saturated molecule so the molecules in the Lipid push apart, thus making it more fluid and oily.

Types of lipids

Triglycerides

Basically one glycerol molecule bonded with three fatty acid molecules as seen below . Triglycerides are hydrophobic and so insoluble in water.

 

Phospholipids

Phospholipids are similar to triglycerides in they consist of a glycerol ‘back bone’ and fatty acid ‘tails’

This means the phosphate group will orientate itself towards water and away from the rest of the molecule, and also gives rise to the special properties that allow phospholipids to be used to form membranes

bilyrstr

Prostaglandins Thromboxanes & Leukotrienes

Natural hormones have an extraordinary range of biological effects. They can lower gastric secretions, stimulate uterine contractions, lower blood pressure, influence blood clotting and induce asthma-like allergic responses.

Steroids

Steroids may be recognized by their tetracyclic skeleton, consisting of three fused six-membered and one five-membered ring, as shown in the diagram to the right. The four rings are designated A, B, C & D as noted, and the peculiar numbering of the ring carbon atoms (shown in red) is the result of an earlier misassignment of the structure. The substituents designated by R are often alkyl groups, but may also have functionality. The R group at the A:B ring fusion is most commonly methyl or hydrogen, that at the C:D fusion is usually methyl. The substituent at C-17 varies considerably, and is usually larger than methyl if it is not a functional group. The most common locations of functional groups are C-3, C-4, C-7, C-11, C-12 & C-17. Ring A is sometimes aromatic.

steroid

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a waxy steroid which is produced by the liver. Cholesterol is vital for normal body function. Every cell in our body has cholesterol in its outer layer.

Can you tell if your milk was added first ?

Check out this cool video that shows and experiment into the denaturing of proteins and how big of impact it makes on the taste of some of our food

Unfortunately for me i like my tea black as well so this doesn’t affect me :/

i hope you enjoyed my page thus far 🙂

DNA

DNA is sometimes called “the blueprint of life” because it contains the code, or instructions for building and organism and ensuring that organism functions correctly. It is the chemical component of chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of every cell. Stretches of DNA (or stretches of chromosomes) code for genes.

The shape of the DNA molecule is a double-helix (like a twisted ladder). The sides of the ladder are composed of alternating sugars (deoxyribose) and phosphates. The rungs of the ladder are composed of nucleotides.

Nucleotides pair in a specific way – called the Base-Pair Rule

Adenine pairs to Thymine

Guanine pairs to Cytosine

How I remember it A,T or  At and gato means cat or G-C

Chargaff’s Rule

In DNA, the amount of A = the amount of T and the amount of C = the amount of G

RNA

RNA is a copy of DNA that goes out into the cytoplasm and basically tells the cell which proteins to make. RNA has the same shape as DNA except that it is a single stranded the R stands or ribonucleic acid and that there are

Uracil (U)

Adenine (A)

Guanine (G)

Cytosine (C)

This animation helps a lot with explaining how DNA works to make protein http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter3/animation__how_translation_works.html

The ETC Rollercoaster

It seems like a fun ride if your and electron you see NADH and FADH act as electron stores or transporters and when they get to complex I of the electron transport chain the electrons are passed from the molecules to complex and then from that complex to the other complexes. NADH is oxidized to NAD in this process and at Complex II FADH is oxidised adding more electrons for the chain.

So basically the electrons are fully of energy like “YEAHH this is fun” as they move from complex to complex


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However as the electrons move through the chain from complex to complex they lose their energy thus at complex III, no additional electrons enter the chain, but electrons from complexes I and II flow through it.

When electrons arrive at complex IV, they are transferred to a molecule of oxygen. When the oxygen, get the electrons water is produced and so the electrons are like “aww i just so tired i had enough i think ill just turn into water and chill.”

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But its not just a free fun ride it serious business because while these electron ride from complex to complex, H+ move through complexes I-IV from the matix to the outside the membrane or in the intermembrane space where it accumulates. As a result, a net negative charge builds up in the matrix space while a net positive charge builds up in the intermembrane space this is where the last complex comes into play this complex is called ATP synthase.

In an attempt to meet and equilibrium between the charges the H+ in the intermembrane space tries to find a way back into the matrix however the only way back is through the ATP synthase molecule that harnesses the energy of the H+ flowing back into the matrix and thus in the process uses the energy to make ATP by combing ADP +Pi. This process is also called oxidative .phosphorelation and this process takes place within the intermembrane of the  mitochondria.

here is another really cool way of looking at it

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Well i am almost at the end of this blog but i did promise you one last video and that video would be on protein denaturing and then we end with a bang 😀 i hope you had fun with me on my biochem journey ….

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check this out http://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/Bio231/etc.html

wordle

Was bored so i did a glycolysis wodle if you look at it substrates and products are in green while enzymes are in blue and energy molecules are in violet  so enjoy 😀


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Video Review Glycolysis

Video Review on Glycolysis

These are videos on glycolysis and  the author or rather creator happens to be my lecturer for biochemistry at my university and I am not being biased when I say he did a great job. I can certainly attest to the fact that I struggled my royal off trying to understand and cram glycolysis in A-levels or form 6 kind of like pre university if you are not familiar.

It was tough so tough that when I had to do this topic it seemed completely new to me


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However because of my lectures methods I found myself understanding rather than cramming ….And the best advice I can give you if you are having problems is to clear your mind nothing is too difficult and just do it   …. Not for passing the course sake but try to fully understand what you are learning and doing … this method had worked wonders for me I can type this entire blog video review just based on my memory of the video and what I learnt and understood so YaY ME !!!

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Well firstly we have to appreciate that for each step of glycolysis there is an associated enzyme that helps catalyses the steps and since have done enzymes just by looking at the names and the reaction we can get an idea of what the enzymes in glycolysis are doing. Glycolysis can be viewed as well studying you have to give to get , meaning you have to give your time, effort and other things to get a good grade , a good job and well to pass a course. Now the purpose of glycolysis is to gain energy in the form of ATP and NADH and we will see how these are made and I don’t even need to go into detail you can look at this picture and get the jest of the entire pathway.

The video explains each step very closely so I have no idea what to say because the video speaks for itself. It explains each step in detail, it explains why  ATP can be produced at only 2 steps in the pathway and it also explains how much ATP is made how much is the net gain and also how NAD+  is regenerated. So please have a look.

The second video deal with the faith of pyruvate after it’s made it.

Under aerobic the pyruvate is converted to acetyl coA which enters the TCA cycle via the enzyme PDH in the link reaction.

Under anaerobic it is converted to lactate as in fermentation in muscles, in red blood cells and ethanol be produced as in the process with yeast.  And fermentation is a process which gains energy without the use of oxygen. And yes red blood cells do carry oxygen but the thing is they can’t use it since they have no mitochondria which is the site of aerobic oxidative phosphorelation or where ATP is produced (this is  products of TCA are used).It shows how red blood cell regenerates NAD+ via converting pyruvate into lactate.angry cell

The video also explains how lactic acid is formed in muscles after vigorous exercises this reaction is catalysed by LDH.

Finally the video gives an insight into how yeast makes ethanol from pyruvate by the following pathway:

Pap Pap Papain….

Food-Top-Banner-Papaya

This post is just to share a recent experiment I did but before we get to that lets just take a minute and look at this logo.

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To my knowledge this logo is misleading firstly the mixture they have is not 100% pure protein as the side of the box says it contains 15mg sodium in addition to 6g of proteins but I’m not here to argue that look at the back of the box.

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It says , “Indulge gelatine contains important proteins for healthier skin, hair and nails.”  This is misleading since we all know that gelatine is a hydrolysed form of the protein collagen and even though collagen does make up our skin and connective tissue we know that it is keratin that makes up our hair and nails and karetain and collagen are 2 completely different proteins.

  1. Collagen is made of 3 peptide chains which are left handed helix. These 3 helices are then coiled into a right handed coil (triple helix) forming the collagen structure. The peptide chains are predominantly made of glycine and proline and they both serve special roles within the molecule. Glycine works to stabilize since it is the smallest amino acid it fits on every third position of the chains which end up in the interior of the collogen structure or the center of the triple helix. Proline because of its cyclic structure aids in the formation of the coils in the triple helix structure of the collagen, since proline changes the direction of the chain due to is lack of maximum h bonds that can be formed.
  2. Keratin is a fibrous structural protein of hair, nails, horn, hoofs, wool, feathers, and of the epithelial cells in the outermost layers of the skin. The polypeptide chains of keratin are arranged in parallel sheets held together by hydrogen bonding.Of the amino acids in keratin, cystine may account for as much as 24 percent. The numerous disulfide bonds formed by cystine are responsible for the great stability of keratin: it is completely insoluble in hot or cold water and is not attacked by proteolytic enzymes (the enzymes that cleave protein molecules).

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Gelatine is made from collagen thus according to the research it is rich in Proline and glycine both of which are non essential amino acids meaning our body makes them we do not get them from our diet….. thus the box is misleading, Further more it says that the gelatine is important for hair and nails and since we know that keratin is responsible for hair and nails and keratin is mainly made of  cystine molecules the box is again wrong. (If it was made of cystine and keratin the following experiment would not have work as stated proteolytic enzymes such as papain doesn’t work in it)


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Now the video which i made based on the enzyme papain and how it works (its my first video so please feel free to give any tips)…..